Forward (generic name of socialist publications)
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<—First issue of Vorwärts, October 1, 1876
In the English translation, the term Forward has historically been used in the titles of socialist and politically left-leaning periodical publications primarily in Europe. The context of the title connoted an “urge for progress”.
Vorwärts! (German for ‘Forward’, with an exclamation point as part of the name) was a revolutionary German emigré publication issued in Paris in the mid-1840s. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were amongst the contributors to the magazine. Whilst the publication was short-lived, it had a lasting impact and served as an inspiration for later socialist press outlets. A second Vorwärts (without exclamation point) was founded in 1876, being an organ of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and with Wilhelm Liebknecht as its first editor. In the years before the First World War, the term ‘vorwärts’ was almost monopolized in German political discourse by the Social Democrats, and the name was used for various publications and organizations.
The German Vorwärts inspired socialists around the world. The Yiddish daily Forverts, founded in New York in 1897, was named after the German publications (which were well-known amongst Jewish radical circles at the time). Rather than using the Yiddish word faroys, a transliteration of the German name was used. Another prominent example has been Vpered (Russian language for ‘Forward’), the publication that Lenin started after having resigned from the Iskra editorial board in 1905 after a clash with Georgi Plekhanov and the Mensheviks. The name did however fall out of fashion in Russia after the October Revolution. A Volga German Bolshevik newspaper named Vorwärts was re-baptized Nachrichten as the Soviet leadership wished to avoid associations with the German Social Democratic organ. The Liverpool Forward was published from 1912 to 1914 in Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Other publications named Forward (in different languages)
- Avante!, of the Portuguese Communist Party
- Avanti!, organ of the Italian Socialist Party
- Eteenpäin, Finnish-language newspaper in the United States
- Új Elöre (‘New Forward’), a Hungarian-language newspaper in the United States
- Forverts, commonly known as The Jewish Daily Forward
- Vorwärts!, 19th century journal of the Communist League
- Vorwärts, the central organ of the Social Democratic Party of Germany published daily in Berlin from 1891 to 1933
- Adelante, a Communist-party organ in Cuba.
1. ^ a b Ismael, Tareq Y.; Ismael, Jacqueline (1998). “Notes / Chapter 3: The ideological crisis and the challenge to the leadership of Khalid Bakdash. Note 32″. The Communist movement in Syria and Lebanon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p. 246. ISBN 0-8130-1631-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=lTWdeUAfHWAC&pg=PA246.
2. ^ McClellan, Woodford (Spring 1981). “Avanti! (microfilm review)“. Microform Review 10 (2): 99–100. ISSN 0002-6530. OCLC 1757389. http://books.google.com/books?id=jT08AQAAIAAJ.
Few mastheads have made such an impression upon European consciousness as those that have borne the name Forward. Karl Marx and the German émigrés in Paris founded Vorwärts in 1844 and made themselves sufficiently obnoxious to the French, Prussian and Russian kings that they were thrown across the Channel a year later. In the 1870′s, another Vorwärts appeared as the organ of the new German Social-Democratic Party, and at about the same time the Russian socialist Peter Lavrov found a Vperëd! in Zurich (it was soon removed to London). Andrea Costa briefly published a weekly Avanti! in Italy in 1880, and Lenin founded and directed a second Vperëd! in Geneva in 1904–1905; this was the first Bolshevik journal. Many other socialist journals in at least a dozen countries (including the United States) bore the famous name. In a century in which any small group of like-minded individuals was able to find the necessary funds, talent and equipment to publish some sort of propaganda sheet, the name Forward, in whatever language, was rarely out of the eye of the public, or at least of the police. The publication under review here was the most famous and long-lasting of all the Forward clan.
3. ^ Eichberg, Henning (1998). “The societal construction of time and space as sociology’s way home to philosphy: sport as paradigm“. In Bale, John; Philo, Chris (eds.). Body cultures: essays on sport, space and identity. London: Routledge. pp. 149–164. ISBN 0-415-17232-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=J0gia_iEx1EC&pg=PA159.pp. 159–160:
‘Progress’ has been a term of fundamental significance in racing sport as well as in societal thinking, linking into terms such as ‘mobility’ and ‘acceleration’, ‘achievement’ and ‘growth’ (Koselleck, 1975; Oettermann, 1984). Together they have formed a pattern that could readily be understood socially because of its base in bodily — spatial, temporal — experience. But this could only work in a society esteeming highly the race and the stopwatch in sport. Professional runners in the 1830s set the word ‘progress’ on their flag, and at about the same time — and later — ‘progress’ appeared as a political direction on both (red) flags and in (left-wing) newspaper titles (Avanti, Vorwärts, Fremad, Fortschritt, Progress). The contents of such ‘progress’ would always be controversial and disputed, but even the ‘conservative’ or ‘reactionary’ (right-wing) positions argued from inside the same configuration, whether they demanded to ‘slow down’ the race, to return it to the starting point or affirmed that their schemes represented ‘the real progress’.
4. ^ a b Philologos, Forward at 110. Forverts!
5. ^ Steenson, Gary P. “Not One Man! Not One Penny!”: German Social Democracy, 1863-1914. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1981. p. 141
6. ^ Cohen, Jocelyn. My Future Is in America: Autobiographies of Eastern European Jewish Immigrants. New York [u.a.]: New York Univ. Press, 2006. p. 105
7. ^ Heitman, Sidney. Germans from Russia in Colorado. Fort Collins, Colo: Western Social Science Association, 1978. pp. 36, 43
8. ^ Cowman, Krista (2007). The Militant Suffragette Movement in York. Borthwick Institute Publications. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-904497-21-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=x8uugZ_Yfh8C&pg=PA34&dq=Forward+Socialist+media&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HM6iT8WGD8nXsgaR2JjNBw&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBjge#v=onepage&q=Forward%20Socialist%20media&f=false.